## SPSS Finding Outliers in a Dataset

Why Are There Extreme Values in Data? Several reasons account for outliers in datasets, with the simplest being the natural variance in human populations. Humans differ in many ways, and a certain degree of variation is normal. Whether something is considered an outlier often depends on the sample being studied. For instance, a person over …

## SPSS Factor Analysis and Principal Component Analysis (PCA)

What is Factor Analysis? Factor analysis is a multivariate analysis method used to explore and explain the structure of relationships between variables. It’s often applied in psychology and social science disciplines to identify the dimensions or factors that explain the relationships between variables. In this post, we will focus on how to conduct a factor …

## SPSS Descriptive Analyses for Frequencies

Descriptive analysis is a vital part of statistics, serving to summarize and describe data. With descriptive statistics, we can identify characteristic features of a sample or a population and infer conclusions about the underlying distribution. In this article, we will focus on descriptive analysis in SPSS, learning how to calculate and interpret various descriptive statistics …

## SPSS unpaired t-Test (independent)

Independent Samples t-Test in SPSS An independent t-test, also known as an unpaired t-test, is a statistical method used to determine whether there’s a significant difference between the means of two independent groups. For instance, this might involve comparing the average grades of students using different textbooks. The t-test calculates a value indicating how much …

## SPSS paired t-test

SPSS Guide: Mastering the Paired t-Test for Comparative Data Analysis The paired t-test in SPSS is a straightforward method to compare two related measurements, indicating a dependency or relationship between them. This relationship could be, for example, surveying the same individual at two different points in time. Consider exploring the effect of a diet by …

## SPSS Spearman Rho Korrelation

The Spearman correlation, also called rank correlation, is a statistical method for measuring the strength and direction of a monotonic relationship between two variables. Unlike the Pearson correlation, which measures the linear relationship between variables, the Spearman correlation examines the monotonic relationship, which can also be described as non-linear. It is often used in social …

## Hypothesis Testing – Null Hypothesis and Statistical Tests

What is a hypothesis test needed for? A hypothesis test is needed to determine whether there is a significant relationship between two or more variables. To do this, a hypothesis is first made stating that there is such a relationship. Then, data is collected and a statistical test is performed to check the validity of …

## Population and sample size

Population and samples explained A population is a set of objects of interest about which one wishes to make certain statements. A sample is a subset of the population that is selected to make statements about the population. The sample is used to make estimates about the characteristics of the population. The size of the …

## Reliability in statistics

When is a statistic reliable? A statistic is reliable if it produces similar results when used repeatedly. In other words, a reliable statistic is one that leads to similar results across different measurements or analyses. What is reliability in statistics? In statistics, reliability refers to the stability or reliability of a measurement instrument or method. …

## Validity in statistics

When is a statistic valid? Validity in statistics refers to whether a measurement tool or method actually measures what you want to measure. A statistic is valid when it actually measures what you want to measure and is not just an approximation or a distortion of it. There are different types of validity, such as …