## SPSS Finding Outliers in a Dataset

Why Are There Extreme Values in Data? Several reasons account for outliers in datasets, with the simplest being the natural variance in human populations. Humans differ in many ways, and a certain degree of variation is normal. Whether something is considered an outlier often depends on the sample being studied. For instance, a person over …

## SPSS Factor Analysis and Principal Component Analysis (PCA)

What is Factor Analysis? Factor analysis is a multivariate analysis method used to explore and explain the structure of relationships between variables. It’s often applied in psychology and social science disciplines to identify the dimensions or factors that explain the relationships between variables. In this post, we will focus on how to conduct a factor …

## SPSS Descriptive Analyses for Frequencies

Descriptive analysis is a vital part of statistics, serving to summarize and describe data. With descriptive statistics, we can identify characteristic features of a sample or a population and infer conclusions about the underlying distribution. In this article, we will focus on descriptive analysis in SPSS, learning how to calculate and interpret various descriptive statistics …

## SPSS unpaired t-Test (independent)

Independent Samples t-Test in SPSS An independent t-test, also known as an unpaired t-test, is a statistical method used to determine whether there’s a significant difference between the means of two independent groups. For instance, this might involve comparing the average grades of students using different textbooks. The t-test calculates a value indicating how much …

## SPSS paired t-test

SPSS Guide: Mastering the Paired t-Test for Comparative Data Analysis The paired t-test in SPSS is a straightforward method to compare two related measurements, indicating a dependency or relationship between them. This relationship could be, for example, surveying the same individual at two different points in time. Consider exploring the effect of a diet by …